The recordings of this database are of rest tremor velocity in the index finger of 16 subjects with Parkinson's disease (PD) who receive chronic high frequency electrical deep brain stimulation (DBS) either uni- or bi-laterally within one of three targets:
This surgical procedure involves implanting an electrode into subcortical structures (Vim, GPi or STN) for long-term stimulation at frequencies greater than 100 Hz. The mechanism by which high frequency DBS suppresses tremor and reduces other symptoms in PD is unknown.
Parkinson’s disease is characterized by the progressive loss of dopamine neurons in the substantia nigra of the midbrain, and is associated with motor symptoms including tremor (usually rest tremor, though sometimes postural tremor), bradykinesia and rigidity. In Parkinson’s disease, tremor becomes more regular or harmonic, its frequency is shifted to a lower range (typically 4–6 Hz), its amplitude increases, the shape of its oscillations changes, and it fluctuates over time. These changes are subtle and intermittent at first, becoming more permanent and obvious as the disease progresses.
Figure 1. Two seconds of Parkinsonian rest tremor velocity (metres/second) recordings from subject g2 (stimulator implanted in the GPi) under four conditions: (a) no stimulation and no medication, (b) deep brain stimulation and no medication, (c) no stimulation and 150% medication, (d) deep brain stimulation and 150% medication. Note the zoomed vertical scale in (b), (c) and (d).
Chronic high frequency deep brain stimulation of the Vim can decrease tremor amplitude in a spectacular way. Deep brain stimulation of the GPi and STN have been shown to relieve not only tremor but also other symptoms of PD such as rigidity and dyskinesia. See Figure 1 for an example of the effect of deep brain stimulation of the GPi on tremor.
Figure 2. Velocity laser recording of rest tremor.
The raw data were obtained using a low intensity velocity-transducing laser that was directed at a piece of reflective paper on the subject’s index finger tip (Figure 2), with the output voltage proportional to the velocity of the finger.
Tremor was recorded for approximately 60 seconds under various conditions:
Please note that not all subjects were tested under all conditions.
For the "medication off" condition, the subject did not take any medication for at least 12 hours. For the "medication on" condition, the subject took 150% of his or her morning dose of dispersible Modopar and testing began after the neurologist determined the medication had taken effect (approximately 40 minutes).
The 16 subjects can be divided into two groups:
The file subject_description.txt contains information on the 16 subjects:
|SUBJECT||2 character subject identification: |
Stimulation target (v=Vim, s=STN, g=GPi), and
Subject number (1-16)
|AGE||Age at the time of testing (years)|
|GENDER||Male (n=11) or female (n=5)|
|STIM TARGET||Vim = ventro-intermediate nucleus
of the thalamus|
GPi = internal Globus Pallidus
|BI/UNI-LATERAL||Bilateral stimulation (n=12) or unilateral stimulation (n=4)|
|EFF FREQ||Frequency (Hz) of effective stimulation (> 100 Hz)|
|INEFF FREQ||Frequency (Hz) of so-called ineffective stimulation (< 100 Hz)|
|INTENSITY||Stimulation intensity (V)|
|PULSE WIDTH||Stimulation pulse width (µsec)|
|MODE||Cont = continuous
Cycl=cyclic stimulation (e.g. 1 minute on, 1 second off)
|STIM CONTACTS||Listed in order of proximal
distal direction on quadripolar stimulating electrode:|
- negative polarity
+ positive polarity
. not stimulated
|YEAR DIAGNOSED||Year diagnosed with Parkinson's disease|
|YEAR DBS RIGHT||Year of right brain DBS surgery|
|YEAR DBS LEFT||Year of left brain DBS surgery|
|TOT DAILY MED||Total medication of morning, noon and evening doses (mg)|
|150% SINGLE DOSE||Dose taken before testing "medication on" condition (mg)|
The file name structure of the records is:
The rest tremor recordings can be classified as one of 8 categories, for subjects with high amplitude tremor (HAT) and for subjects with low amplitude tremor (LAT):
|Total:||HAT subjects: n=37 recordings|
LAT subjects: n=64 recordings
The file file_description.txt contains a summary of recordings per subject in each category.
Beuter, A., Titcombe, M.S., Richer, F., Gross, C., Guehl, D., 2001. Effect of deep brain stimulation on amplitude and frequency characteristics of rest tremor in Parkinson's disease. Thalamus & Related Systems, Volume 1 (3): 203–211 (published by Elsevier Science).